Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and borders with the Sudan and South Sudan to the west; Eritrea to the north and north-east; Djibouti and Somaliland to the east; Somalia and Kenya to the south.
Ethiopia’s history dates back to the first millennium BCE.The country's curent capital city, Addis Ababa, was founded by Emperor Menelik II in 1887. In 1955, Ethiopia, under Emperor Haile Selassie, got its first constitution and an elected parliament.
The Monarchy was overthrown in 1974 and Ethiopia became a socialist state. This regime was in turn overthrown in 1991 and the current constitution was developed. In 1995 a Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, comprising nine states and two chartered cities was proclaimed.
Ethiopia is a founding member of the United Nations and the African Union, with the latter's headquarters based in Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia has sustained a high annual growth since 2004 and the country is among the fastest growing non-oil producing economies in Africa. The agricultural sector accounts for 80% of employment and remains the major source and focus of the country's growth but other sectors, such as service and indusry, are increasingly gaining importance.
Ethiopia is implementing a five-year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP), which aims to foster high and broad-based growth. The GTP , implemented during 2010/11-2014/15, highlights the vital role of environmental conservation in the sustainable development of the country.
Ethiopia’s vision and strategy for a green economy is articulated in its Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) vision document endorsed by the parliament at the end of 2011.
This initiative, comprising a strategy for climate resilient development and another for a green economy, seeks to improve resilience to climate change, ensure abatement, enhance avoidance of future emissions, as well as foster both economic development and less carbon dependent growth.
Ethiopia's Climate Resilient Development Strategy focuses on adapting to climate change to minimize the potential risks and to maximize the potential benefits.
Ethiopia is working to reduce risk systematically by building resilience through an integrated disaster risk reduction and management system and by executing medium and long-term climate change adaptation measures.
The country also supports conservation and rehabilitation of environmental resources and is embedding climate resilience into its development policies, plans and programmes.
Population Forcasts (median age of total population)
|GDP Per Sector (percentage of GDP)
|Agriculture, forestry, fishing & hunting
|Mining and quarrying
|Electricity, gas and water
|Wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants||13.5
|Transport, storage and communication||4.1
|Finance, real estate and business services||9.7
|Public administration, education, health and social work,
community, social and personal services
|(source Africa Economic Outlook 2014)